The Invention That Changed the World
This slide rule, a circular calculating instrument, was patented in 1881 and helped Willis Carrier invent modern air conditioning. Per saperne di più
Willis Carrier’s slide rule, a circular calculating instrument, was patented in 1881 and manufactured by Kueffel & Esser. At the slide rule’s core is a cylinder, or slide, containing a series of scales. Careful scale alignment yields the precision of a modern calculator. Carrier used this instrument to calculate dew point control, a breakthrough that was the foundation of his invention of modern air conditioning.
Starting the Engine
Carrier starts the engine that will drive the first modern air conditioning system. Per saperne di più
Willis Carrier starts the engine that will drive the world’s first modern air conditioning system, installed in the summer of 1902 at the Sackett & Wilhelms printing plant in Brooklyn, New York. This artist’s conceptualization appeared in the August 1954 edition of Steelways magazine, which noted, thanks to Carrier, that “air conditioning spread through the industry like a cool breeze.”
Before launching Carrier, Willis Carrier was an engineer at Buffalo Forge Company. Per saperne di più
A group portrait of the engineers of Buffalo Forge Company includes Willis Carrier (bottom row, third from right) and his future business partner, J. Irvine Lyle (middle row, sixth from left). Carrier, Lyle and five fellow engineers would launch Carrier Engineering Corporation as an independent entity in 1915.
Dr. Carrier, “The Chief”
Willis Carrier invents modern air conditioning in July 1902. Per saperne di più
The invention of modern air conditioning in July 1902 was just the beginning for Willis Carrier, whose contributions to efficient industrial production and enhanced human comfort over the next 50 years were so comprehensive that he became known as “The Father of Air Conditioning.”
The Launch of Carrier Air Conditioning of America
The First Central System
Buffalo Forge Company begins selling Carrier’s “Apparatus for Treating Air.” Per saperne di più
Buffalo Forge Company sells Carrier’s “Apparatus for Treating Air” to the Chronicle Cotton Mills of Belmont, North Carolina, and applies it to the mill’s fan-heater ventilating system. It was the first industrial “central station” humidifying system.
Textile Plants Adopt A/C
The textile industry was one of the earliest adoptees of air conditioning. Per saperne di più
The textile industry was among the earliest and most enthusiastic adoptees of modern air conditioning. Here, buyers for New England Cotton work in a clean, efficient environment.
The Magna Carta
Willis Carrier presents his Rational Psychrometric Formulae. Per saperne di più
Willis Carrier’s Rational Psychrometric Formulae brought science to what had been the often hit-or-miss design of air-conditioning systems, and in the process made Carrier an international name. The chart would be updated and reprinted regularly, serving as an essential tool to generations of engineers and remaining the basis of today’s designs.
Carrier Around the World
Carrier air conditioning installations begin to spread across the globe. Per saperne di più
Almost from the start, air conditioning became an international phenomenon, with important installations of equipment designed by Willis Carrier reaching from North America to Asia, Europe, the Middle East, Central and South America.
Home Comfort Begins
The first residential application of Carrier air conditioning is completed. Per saperne di più
Carrier achieves the first application of air conditioning in a residence for the Charles Gates mansion in Minneapolis, Minnesota.
Carrier Engineering Corporation
Willis Carrier and six other young engineers launch Carrier Engineering Corporation. Per saperne di più
Carrier Engineering Corporation had talented engineers and bright prospects, but little capital. Promoting the business and booking sales were essential activities in the company’s first few months of existence.
Contributing to the War Effort
Carrier air conditioning plays an important role in manufacturing during World War I. Per saperne di più
Carrier’s installation of modern air conditioning at the International Arms and Fuse Company in New Jersey was representative of the sophisticated work that the company performed during World War I, drastically improving the efficiency of workers.
A Woman Engineer
America’s first female air-conditioning engineer is hired at Carrier. Per saperne di più
Carrier hires Margaret Ingels as America’s first woman air-conditioning engineer, right around the time that the decision to allow U.S. women the right to vote was being debated by lawmakers. True to Carrier’s pioneering spirit, she was the subject of several articles in national magazines and served on President Herbert Hoover’s Conference on Home Building and Home Ownership in the late 1920s. Ingels also wrote Willis Carrier’s biography, published in 1952.
Newark Research Lab
A look inside one of Carrier’s early research labs in Newark, New Jersey. Per saperne di più
This iconic photo of Carrier co-founder Alfred E. “Ned” Stacey shows him seated in the company’s Newark, New Jersey, research laboratory shortly after its founding in 1918.
A Mechanical Weather Man
The Mechanical Weather Man authors a book about the benefits of air conditioning. Per saperne di più
The Mechanical Weather Man authored his own book (with an assist from Carrier’s president, J. Irvine Lyle) in 1919, demonstrating the benefits of Carrier’s modern air conditioning in dozens of industries.
Beyond the Factory
Centrifugal Chilling Takes Off
Carrier unveils the first centrifugal chiller in 1922. Per saperne di più
In 1922, Carrier unveiled the first centrifugal chiller, which opened the door to large-scale comfort air conditioning.
On the Way to 2,000
Carrier inspects the company’s first centrifugal chiller in Syracuse, NY. Per saperne di più
On the same day in 1950 that Carrier Corporation completed its 2,000th centrifugal refrigeration machine, Willis Carrier, Chairman Emeritus, visited the Onondaga Pottery Company in Syracuse, New York to inspect his first centrifugal, completed in 1922. The Chief found it in perfect working condition. This picture is thought to be among the last taken of Carrier.
Madison Square Garden employs Carrier centrifugal chillers to cool patrons and the ice. Per saperne di più
New York City’s “new” Madison Square Garden opened in 1925, employing Carrier centrifugal chillers to cool its patrons and produce a perfect ice surface for professional hockey.
Taking Comfort Skyward
Carrier completes its first multi-story office installation in Fresno, California. Per saperne di più
With Carrier centrifugal chiller equipment in the basement, and air conditioning on the roof, the T.W. Patterson Building in Fresno, California, cooled floors two through seven for its tenants, becoming Carrier’s first multi-story installation.
Central Air Goes Vertical
Carrier is part of the first skyscraper to install comfort cooling during construction. Per saperne di più
The construction of the Milam Building in San Antonio, Texas, included Carrier central air conditioning, making it the first skyscraper to install comfort cooling as it was built.
Weathermakers to the World
Movin’ On Up
Sale of Carrier window-sill-height Weathermaster units begins. Per saperne di più
In March 1930, Carrier recorded the first sale of its window-sill-height Weathermaster units to the Superheater Company of East Chicago, Indiana, to air condition the second floor of a two-story building. In August, the California Bank of Los Angeles contracted for 490 Weathermasters to air condition its 15-story building. The U.S. Supreme Court was also cooled using 180 Carrier Weathermaster units.
Thailand Comes to Carrier
King Prajadhipok of Siam visits Carrier’s Newark facility. Per saperne di più
The August 1931 Carrier Courier featured a picture of His Majesty, King Prajadhipok of Siam, with Willis Carrier and a number of company senior executives during the King’s visit to Carrier’s Newark facility. Since that day, Carrier has been a leading supplier of air conditioning to the people and industries of Thailand.
Carrier Takes to the Seas
Carrier is on board the first cruise ship to employ air conditioning for passenger comfort. Per saperne di più
In 1931, the M.V. Victoria, a 13,400-ton Italian motorship designed to run from Italy to Egypt, became the first vessel to make its maiden voyage equipped with Carrier air conditioning.
A Preview of the Future
Carrier solidifies its strong relationship with Japanese customers. Per saperne di più
From the first sale in 1907 of Willis Carrier’s air-conditioning equipment to an international customer, the Fuji Silk Spinning Company of Yokohama, he and his company maintained close ties with Japan. Shown here in 1937, Carrier invited members of the Japanese Trade Commission to Newark Airport for a flight over the metropolitan area in a United Airlines Mainliner. United Airlines was once owned by United Aircraft Corporation, which later became United Technologies Corporation (UTC). UTC became the parent of Carrier in 1979.
The Igloo of Tomorrow
Carrier air conditioning takes center stage at the World’s Fair in 1939. Per saperne di più
When New York City organizers established a World’s Fair committee in 1935, they adopted the motto “Building the World of Tomorrow” and set about attracting companies and technologies that provided for “individual fulfillment and human progress.” Few fit this definition better than Carrier Corporation and modern air conditioning. The Fair opened in 1939 with nearly 1.3 million visitors flocking to the prominent “Carrier Igloo of Tomorrow” in the first 100 days. Inside the Igloo and in the adjacent Hall of Weathermakers, guests learned the steps involved in air conditioning, toured a modern food store using Carrier refrigeration, and viewed an exhibit with Carrier self-contained air conditioning.
An Air Conditioned War
During World War II, Carrier focuses on supporting the Allied war effort. Per saperne di più
With its air conditioning products focused on industrial productivity, Carrier worked tirelessly in support of Allied troops around the globe.
Carrier Helps the War Effort
Carrier air conditioning plays an essential role in manufacturing supplies and munitions. Per saperne di più
In 1942 Carrier marked the 20th anniversary of Willis Carrier’s invention of the centrifugal chiller. The innovation famous for introducing the general public to air conditioning became, during World War II, a critical component in the efficient production of war materiel.
Refrigerators in the Field
Allied troops around the world enjoy safe, fresh food thanks in part to Carrier technology. Per saperne di più
Carrier’s contributions to the war included refrigeration products that insured the safe delivery and storage of perishable foods served to soldiers “6,000 miles from home.”
Keeping Transit Cool
Carrier equips the world’s first air-conditioned bus. Per saperne di più
San Antonio, Texas, touts “the World’s First Air-Conditioned City Bus” in 1946.
Willis Carrier Passes Away
On a trip to New York City on October 7, 1950, Willis Carrier passes away. Per saperne di più
On October 7, 1950, shortly before his 74th birthday, Willis Carrier died while on a trip to New York City. It was the end of a rich and remarkable life, the close of an era for both an industry and a company, but just the start of an enduring legacy.
Growing With the Baby Boomers
Air Conditioning Turns 50
Carrier celebrates the 50th anniversary of air conditioning. Per saperne di più
On the 50th anniversary of air conditioning, Carrier President Cloud Wampler (right) and the president of the P&lE Railroad stand on the platform in Pittsburgh, where Willis Carrier first conceived of modern, spray-type air conditioning. In the background is Pittsburgh’s Gateway Center, at the time the world’s largest installation of Carrier Conduit Weathermasters.
The largest contract in the history of residential air conditioning is awarded to Carrier. Per saperne di più
In January 1956, Carrier won the largest contract ever awarded for residential air conditioning, jointly announced with the community building firm of Levitt & Sons, Inc. Carrier was able to provide Weathermaker central air-conditioning systems for 702 “Country Clubber” homes in Levittown, Pennsylvania.
Carrier Goes Mobile
By the 1950s, Carrier offerings span from large chillers to small units for mobile homes. Per saperne di più
Few pictures demonstrate the breadth of Carrier’s capabilities better than this 1957 shot from the Mobile Homes Show in the New York Coliseum (at the site of today’s Time Warner Center). A hostess turns the control dial on a tiny one-horsepower Roomette air conditioner for mobile homes, while behind her a Carrier centrifugal chiller provides cooling for the nine acres of exhibit space at the show.
Reimagining Refrigerated Transport
Carrier introduces the first front-wall refrigeration unit for containers. Per saperne di più
Carrier Transicold’s record of innovation included the first front-wall refrigeration unit for containers in 1968. Since then, it has pioneered work in everything from efficient diesel/electric installations to introduction of the first natural refrigerant container unit in 2010.
110 Floors of Cooling
The contract for air conditioning in the world’s tallest building is awarded to Carrier. Per saperne di più
Carrier is awarded the principal air conditioning contract for Chicago’s 110-floor Sears Tower, which when completed was the tallest building in the world.
Expanded Global Reach
UTC Acquires Carrier
Carrier is acquired by United Technologies. Per saperne di più
The acquisition of Carrier by United Technologies in 1979 would reshape the global market for heating, ventilation and air conditioning.
Carrier Goes Digital
Carrier products play an essential role in enabling the technology that drives the Internet. Per saperne di più
Carrier products are providing efficient cooling to data centers all over the world, underscoring Carrier’s important role in helping make the Web accessible to people everywhere.
Carrier pioneers environmentally responsible products, services and education. Per saperne di più
Carrier’s environmental stewardship has always included a strong education component and a commitment to the use of sound refrigerants well in advance of regulations and competitors.
Preserving a Masterpiece
Carrier engineers develop a brilliant solution to preserve the Sistine Chapel frescoes. Per saperne di più
Three decades of painstaking work highlighted the original colors of Michelangelo’s masterpiece in the Sistine Chapel but also left it exposed to the elements. Carrier’s preservation work included the use of highly accurate humidity-measuring units, like this one, placed on a ledge about 30 feet above the floor and invisible to visitors.
As a natural leader, Carrier leads the phase-out of CFC-based chillers in the U.S. Per saperne di più
Carrier ceases to manufacture CFC-based chillers in the U.S., two years before the deadline established by the U.S. Clean Air Act and 16 years ahead of requirements for developing countries.
A Century of Influence
Carrier celebrates the centennial of modern air conditioning. Per saperne di più
In 1998, Willis Carrier is named one of Time magazine’s “100 Most Influential People of the Century.”
Hitting the Century Mark
Carrier celebrates the centennial of modern air conditioning. Per saperne di più
On the centennial of modern air conditioning, Geraud Darnis, president of Carrier Corp., told an audience at the W. E. Grady High School in Brooklyn, New York, “Creating the Willis H. Carrier Academy is the ideal way to honor his belief that education and understanding are the keys to solving challenges of all kinds.”
Gold Medal Performance
Innovative Carrier technology puts on a medal-worthy performance in Beijing in 2008. Per saperne di più
Beijing National Stadium, a major venue used when Beijing hosted international athletic competition and often referred to as the “Bird’s Nest,” featured Carrier air-handling units and the first Chinese-produced HVAC product certified by EN 1886, the highest international HVAC standard.
Carrier Takes the LEED
A Carrier commercial plant becomes the first of its kind to be LEED® Gold Certified. Per saperne di più
In 2011, Carrier’s Monterrey Commercial plant was the first industrial facility in the global heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) industry to be Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED®) Gold Certified.
To Infinity…and Beyond!
Carrier introduces the company’s most efficient air source heat pump. Per saperne di più
In 2011, Carrier introduced the Infinity® heat pump with Greenspeed™ intelligence offering the greatest heating efficiency of any air source heat pump.
110 Years and Counting
Carrier celebrates a legacy of innovation as modern air conditioning reaches a new milestone. Per saperne di più
Carrier celebrates the 110th anniversary of the invention of modern air conditioning. Learn More at WillisCarrier.com