Step 1: Define Weather Data
First, identify your building location by clicking on map images or selecting from drop-down lists. The chosen building location establishes hour-by-hour simulation weather data for over 500 cities for your analysis.
Step 2: Define Building Data
Second, describe your building. An efficient, top-down approach is used. First you describe the building type, footprint shape and dimensions, zoning, number of floors and window-to-wall ratio. Then you describe the envelope constructions, internal load densities and schedules, and ventilation requirements. Using this data, the program will automatically determine floor areas, wall, roof and window areas and orientations, envelope construction details, and internal heat gain profiles for each zone in the building.
- Default data based on building types: office, school, retail, healthcare, lodging, religious, entertainment, industrial.
- Five building footprint shapes: rectangular, rectangular with courtyard, L, T, U.
- Footprint dimensions and building data fully customizable.
- Four zoning options: block, by exposure, by exposure with corners, perimeter/interior.
- Space ventilation requirements based on ASHRAE Standard 62.1 or user-defined.
- ASHRAE standard default schedules for lighting, occupant and electrical plug heat gains.
Step 3: Define HVAC Systems and Equipment
Third, configure your HVAC alternatives. Again a top-down approach is used to describe the equipment type, equipment efficiencies and key components and controls. Input screens display a simple diagram of the systems and equipment you're configuring for immediate visual feedback. From this information, the program automatically generates full, detailed definitions of air-side systems, chilled water plants and hot water plants, as applicable.
- Rooftop units
- Split DX air handling units
- Chilled water air handling units
- DX fan coil units
- 2-Pipe and 4-Pipe fan coil units
- Water source heat pump loop
- Ground source heat pumps
- Variable refrigerant flow (VRF)
- Induction Beams
- Active Chilled Beams
- Vertical packaged units (air cooled and water cooled)
- Constant Volume - Single-Zone
- Constant Volume - Terminal Reheat
- VAV, Cooling Only
- VAV Reheat
- VAV with Series Fan Powered Mixing Boxes
- VAV with Parallel Fan Powered Mixing Boxes
- Variable Volume / Variable Temperature (VVT)
- Fan Coil Units
- Induction Beams
- Active Chilled Beams
- Outdoor air economizers
- Demand controlled ventilation (DCV)
- Ventilation heat recovery (heat recovery wheels, energy recovery wheels, heat pipes, air-to-air heat exchangers, pump around systems)
- Active humidity control (humidistat)
- 2-speed supply fan
- Variable speed supply fan
- 2-stage compression
- Direct outdoor air systems (DOAS) for terminal systems
- Water-cooled chillers (centrifugal, rotary screw, packaged screw, packaged scroll, packaged reciprocating)
- Air-cooled chillers (packaged screw, packaged scroll, packaged reciprocating) with DX free cooling options
- Water-cooled absorption chillers (single-effect, double-effect, direct-fired)
- Up to 12 chillers in parallel per plant
- Equal and unequal chiller sizing
- Chillers sequenced or equally unloaded
- Chilled water distribution systems: primary-only constant speed, primary-only variable speed, primary/secondary with variable speed secondary
- Chilled water reset controls: constant temperature, reset based on load, reset based on outdoor air temperature schedule
- Condenser pump controls: constant flow/constant speed, variable flow/variable speed
- Heat rejection equipment: cooling towers, dry coolers, geo/well source
- Cooling tower fan controls: water bypass, cycled fan, 2-speed fan, variable speed fan
- Integrated and non-integrated water-side economizer
- Model and compare six types of heat recovery from chilled water plants.
- Heat recovery from air-cooled and water-cooled chillers.
- Heat transfer modeling based on hourly water temperatures for accuracy.
Heat Recovery Plant Types
- Dedicated heat recovery chiller (DHRC) in parallel with cooling-only chillers
- Air-cooled chillers with heat recovery condensers
- Heat exchanger in condenser loop
- Dedicated heat recovery chiller in condenser loop
- Double-bundle chillers
- Chillers with desuperheaters
- Reversible air-to-water chillers (scroll)
- Reversible water-to-water chillers (scroll, screw)
- Up to 12 reversible chillers in parallel
- 2-pipe changeover controls
- Chilled water and hot water reset controls
- Chiller sequencing controls (2 types)
- Distribution systems (primary-only constant speed, primary-only variable speed, primary/secondary variable speed)
- Geo/well source model
- Boiler types: Non-condensing and condensing
- Air-to-water heat pumps: Scroll
- Water-to-water heat pumps: Scroll and Screw
- Up to 12 units in parallel per plant
- Equal or unequal unit sizing
- Units sequenced or equally unloaded
- Hot water distribution systems: primary-only constant speed, primary-only variable speed, primary/secondary with variable speed secondary
- Hot water reset controls: constant temperature, reset based on load, reset based on outdoor air temperature schedule
- Geo/well source for water-to-water heat pumps
- Service water heating (SHW): Storage tank water heating systems
- Combined space heating and SHW plants
- Up to 12 boilers in parallel per plant
- Equal or unequal boiler sizing
- Boilers sequenced or equally unloaded
Step 4: Define Utility Rates
Fourth, define your utility prices. For sites in the United States you can select state-average prices for electricity and gas from drop-down lists, or you can directly enter your own flat price data. In addition, you can create a detailed electric rate with options for seasonal and time-of-day pricing, stepped rates, demand charges and ratchet clauses. The software asks you high level questions about the kind of electric rate you have and then automatically configures the pricing tables to remove the complication of modeling these kinds of rates.
- Simple electric rate with flat energy and flat demand price.
- Detailed electric rate with options for seasonal pricing, time of day pricing, flat or stepped prices, demand charges, ratchet clause, minimum kW clause.
- Simple fuel rates with flat energy prices for natural gas, fuel oil, propane.
- Ability to default electric and natural gas prices using latest US Energy Information Administration (EIA) data.
- CO2 equivalent emission factors for electricity and fuel sources.
Step 5: Generate Reports
Finally, select your reports and run the energy cost analysis. Building System Optimizer offers a high level energy cost summary that compares the bottom-line energy use and energy cost performance of your alternatives so you can quickly identify the design alternative having the best energy performance. The software also offers a roster of detailed reports that help you investigate energy performance of your designs on a component-by-component and monthly basis. The professionally formatted reports combine graphics and tabular data for impact and readability.
- Energy Cost Comparison report comparing designs on the basis of annual energy cost, annual energy use, CO2 equivalent emissions.
- Energy Cost Details report comparing component costs and energy use for indoor fans, cooling, heating, pumps, heat rejection, lighting and plug loads.
- Month by month energy costs by energy or fuel source.
- Month by month energy costs by system component (fans, cooling, heating, pumps, heat rejection, lighting, plug loads).
- Month by month energy use by system component (fans, cooling, heating, pumps, heat rejection, lighting, plug loads).
- Energy billing details showing construction of electric and fuel charges, listing monthly energy consumption and peak demand, by time-of-day period when applicable.
- Simulation weather statistics.
- Summary of key input data for the group of alternatives being compared.
- Output of peak equipment loads for sizing assessments.
- Detailed input reports documenting all program inputs.
- Ability to compare up to 10 HVAC alternatives at a time
- Ability to arrange HVAC alternatives on reports in any desired sequence
- Most reports combine graphics and tabular data for impact and readability.
- Ability to view, save to file and print reports.